Samurai Shodown 6 Mame Rom, Craftsman Torque Wrench Handle Repair, Weather In France In August 2020, Anti Inflammatory Diet For Allergies, Bermuda Pants For Ladies, Monster In The Mirror Simpsons, For Much Of The 1800s, Mexico Was Ruled Over By, Nina Foch Columbo, Kalogria Beach Hotel Axaia, Mopar Engine Vin Decoder, 23 Cylinders Drive Kingscliff Video, Joola Rhyzer 48, " />

They are commonly known as bromes, brome grasses, cheat grasses or chess grasses.Estimates in the scientific literature of the number of species have ranged from 100 to 400, but plant taxonomists currently recognize around 160–170 species. This was tested in hail damaged dry beans and soybean cultivars with varying susceptibility to brown spot. These … And when used with Agral® 90, or another Corteva Agriscience approved non-ionic surfactant, Simplicity GoDRI dissolves quickly and completely and … Fluazifop, quizalofop, clethodim, sethoxydim, and glyphosate can all reduce downy brome and Japanese brome biomass, especially when applied shortly after germination to plants less than 4.3 inches tall —with a tendency for fluazifop and quizalofop to be most effective. Cheatgrass displaces native vegetation. Cheatgrass; Downy brome Bromus tectorum Cheatgrass; Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) is an invasive plant of Southern Europe, Africa amd Asia. Green foxtail, downy brome, and Japanese brome were controlled greater than 90% with pyroxasulfone applied postemergence, while foxtail barley and Persian darnel were controlled between 80 and 90%. Previous research has shown that pyridine growth regulator herbicides can affect seed production in annual grasses including downy brome, Japanese brome, wheat, and other cereal grain crops. pumpellianus Pumpelly's brome Legal Status. Inflorescence is an open panicle, 2 to 7 inches lon… Focus has two components: Pyroxasulfone: A group 15 herbicide that provides residual activity on both grassy and broadleaf weeds. Aminocyclopyrachlor is a pyridine carboxylic acid growth regulator herbicide that has recently been registered for broadleaf weed and brush control in nonagricultural areas, which may help facilitate … Its active ingredient is quizalofop. Japanese brome spikelets are shorter (10 to 20 mm) and have shorter (8 to 10 mm) curved awns. Downy brome remains green and palatable for about a month in both spring and fall. Besides being an annual, Japanese Brome is distinguished by densely hairy sheaths, leaves sparsely to moderately covered in long spreading or crinkly hairs, ligule 1 to 2 mm long, 7 to 15 florets per spikelet, a (3)5-veined lower glume … as downy brome, die back with the onset of late spring and early summer temperatures and are not present during the summer months. Beyond can also provide control of cheat, Japanese brome, downy brome, and Italian ryegrass. Japanese brome is a Eurasian annual, widely introduced in North America and considered a noxious weed on rangelands and prairies where it competes with native perennials for water and nutrients. Impact: These bromes suppress other grasses in rangeland, can infest agricultural fields, and have sharp florets that can injure grazing animals. However, at 50 days after POST applications, all treatments provided greater than 90% control of Japanese brome, except for flumioxazin at 73% control. Native to southern and south-central Europe and Asia; Japanese brome is an excellent seed producer and can maintain itself as a reseeding annual; forms dense thickets that displace native species, highly competitive. Downy Brome seed is a reddish colour at maturity while Japanese Brome is tan in colour. Region V (Southern) Referee Report Results Bromus commutatus hairy brome hairy chess 9% B. japonicus 77%. Trials were established at Lethbridge and Kipp, Alberta, and Scott, Saskatchewan, over three growing seasons to compare herbicides for control of downy and Japanese brome in winter wheat. Japanese brome (Bromus japonicusThunb.) smooth brome. Most Downy Brome seed is present in trash or on the soil surface. GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Japanese brome is an introduced, cool-season, annual grass from 8 to 48 inches (20-120 cm) tall. Reddy S, Stahlman P, Geier P (2013) Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) and. Japanese ( Bromus japonicas) and downy ( Bromus tectorum) brome are winter annual weeds that typically germinate in the fall, overwinter as small seedlings, and start growing in the spring. They are commonly known as bromes, brome grasses, cheat grasses or chess grasses.Estimates in the scientific literature of the number of species have ranged from 100 to 400, but plant taxonomists currently recognize around 160–170 species. Downy brome usually emerged more slowly than the crop species, but the additional time required to reach 50% emergence compared with that of the crop species was no more than 8 d. Results indicated that differences between downy brome and canola, wheat, and rye in their soil temperature and moisture requirements for optimal emergence are likely insufficient to allow development of cultural control … By Bruce Barker. Downy and Japanese Brome are both winter annuals which typically germinate in the fall in response to rain, but if fall moisture is not adequate they can act as spring annuals. Tank mixing Olympus ® herbicide with your pre-seed Roundup ® application and following it with an in-season application of Varro ® or Velocity m3 herbicide provides exceptional control of flushing foxtail barley, downy and Japanese brome in your wheat.. Additionally, you get enhanced control of wild oats, and volunteer canola and many of your other toughest weeds, ultimately providing your crop with … Weed Technology, 32(6), 739-748. ™Canadian Agronomists and Canadian Agronomist logo are trademarks of Haywire Creative Inc. © Haywire Creative Inc .2018. Your email address will not be published. The best control will likely be achieved with fall applications, using the 6 oz rate instead of the 4 oz rate, and using MSO instead of NIS where that is … Downy brome seed is a grey to reddish colour at maturity, while Japanese brome seed is tan coloured. Plants typically reach a height of 80 to 100 centimetres (cm). U.S. Weed Information; Bromus inermis . Besides being an annual, Cheatgrass is distinguished by soft-hairy leaves and sheaths, ligule 2 to 5 mm long, 3 to 8 florets per spikelet, a 1-veined lower glume, 3-veined upper glume, variously hairy lemmas with an awn up to 25 … Origin: All species are native to Eurasia. Downy Brome seed is a reddish colour at maturity while Japanese Brome is tan in colour. ex Murr. Pyroxsulam provided 70% control of downy brome at these stages. Japanese brome is a Eurasian annual, widely introduced in North America and considered a noxious weed on rangelands and prairies where it competes with native perennials for water and nutrients. Research evaluated the efficacy of glyphosate… Dig Deeper. It is resistant to drought and extremes in temperature. Control options, he says, are limited, but he agrees that Simplicity does a fairly good job. Cheatgrass, also commonly called Downy Brome, is one of two weedy (and potentially invasive) annual Bromes in Minnesota, the other being Japanese Brome ( Bromus japonicus ). Brome hay is essentially harvested brome grass for purpose of feeding livestock like cattle and horses. New plant growth regulator registered in Canada, A new forecasting tool for Sclerotinia risk, 2020 Manitoba Pulse and Soybean Guide now available, Recapping the 2020 cereals season in Ontario, Developing an agricultural risk management tool. It is the principal feed source on all spring lambing ranges and supplies good quality forage for a short term. “These two species probably cause more irritation to … @AAFC_Canada cereal pathologist @ReemWheat's project on tan spot resistance reveals some long-standing assumptions about this fungus’s interactions with wheat don’t apply to all types. •Cheatgrass/downy brome (Bromus tectorum), Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus), feral rye (Secale cereale) •5 Application Timings (July EPRE, 2014 –April LPOST, 2015) •Esplanade® at 3, 5 and 7 oz/A •Plateau® at 7 oz/A Initial Esplanade®200 SC Field Development Open Spaces and Natural Areas Site 1 (cheatgrass, Japanese brome) 24. Broadleaf weed control was conducted with a spring post-emergence (post) application of bromoxynil (Conquer) and pyrasulfatole (Infinity) at the 3 to 4 leaf stage of winter wheat. (2018). post emergence on Japanese brome and cheatgrass (downy brome) had an effect on seed development –Does Milestone have an effect on seed development of medusahead similar to that of growth regulators on Japanese brome? Comments . The Invasive Species Council of Manitoba says downy brome panicles will droop more, while Saskatchewan’s Ministry of Agriculture points out that downy brome is more purple in colour. The difference in production adds justi- fication for selective control of medusahead in downy brome with diuron. Pyroxasulfone provides an additional Group 15 mode of action for brome control. in Winter Wheat in Western Canada. Despite slightly higher injury at Scott in 2012 and 2013, overall injury at other sites was acceptable. 136,000 seeds per pound. Japanese brome is a cool season, annual grass that can range in height from 14 to 40 inches. Ligules are 1/64 to 1/16 of an inch long and auricles are absent. Can. Downy and Japanese brome seeds were surface broadcast prior to seeding at 15 plants per square foot (150 plants per square metre) to supplement natural populations of the weeds. In New England it is found in fields, roadsides and disturbed sites. JAPANESE BROME (Bromus japonicus) Japanese brome Description: Japanese brome is a member of the Poaceae or grass family. Bromus is a large genus of grasses, classified in its own tribe Bromeae. However, Beddows (1) reported greater variation in downy brome progeny produced from open-grown plants than from caryopses produced in bagged inflorescences, and he concluded that cross-pollination occasionally occurred. Downy brome … 1996). James E. Bromberg, Sunil Kumar, Cynthia S. Brown, Thomas J. Stohlgren, Distributional Changes and Range Predictions of Downy Brome ( Bromus tectorum ) in Rocky Mountain National Park , Invasive Plant Science and Management, 10.1614/IPSM-D-10-00022.1, 4, 2, (173-182), (2017). that is easy to determine. Seed heads have long branches and pedicels, usually droop to one side when mature, and each branch has one to five spikelets. secalinus L.), Japanese brome (Bromus japonicus Thunb. Pyroxasulfone Is Effective for Management of Bromus spp. Outrider is an effective tool to combat tough weeds like Johsongrass and Bromus sp. They are actually a major forage source in part of the north western United States, supplying the bulk of early spring forage for all livestock classes. Winter wheat was direct seeded into standing stubble on 9 to 12 inch row spacing (23 to 31 cm). Winter annual grass weed interference with winter wheat usually is greatest when weeds emerge simultaneously or soon after wheat emergence. #nutrients #cdnag Both brome species (Smooth and Downy) can act as weeds in high quality turf areas. Downy brome is one of the earliest plants to get going in the spring, says Neeser, which makes it a particular challenge in winter wheat. ex Murr. In the eastern US B. tectorum is common along roadsides and as … Downy and Japanese brome seeds were surface broadcast prior to seeding at 15 plants per square foot (150 plants per square metre) to supplement natural populations of the weeds. The shape of the stem is another feature . Besides being an annual, Cheatgrass is distinguished by soft-hairy leaves and sheaths, ligule 2 to 5 mm long, 3 to 8 florets per spikelet, a 1-veined lower glume, 3-veined upper glume, variously hairy lemmas with an awn up to 25 mm long that is spreading at maturity, palea shorter than the lemma and … Japanese brome is a cool season, annual grass that can range in height from 14 to 40 inches. Region V (Southern) Referee Report Results Bromus hordeaceus blandobrome soft chess Bromusmollis 91%. The difference in production adds justi- fication for selective control of medusahead in downy brome with diuron. https://www.topcropmanager.com/top-crop-summit-2021-sweepstakes-winners-announced/, Control options for Japanese and downy brome in winter wheat and fall rye. Preplant surface applied 3 – 5 days before seeding. #mbagron20 @drbeans1, Our second round of #TCSummit Sweepstakes winners has been drawn! Japanese brome produces roughly 250,000 seeds per pound. awnless brome. Stem 2-4 ft. tall, erect, usually stout and leafy. Farming brome grass is an income source because it can be and often is sold as horse hay. Future studies will include greenhouse experiments to evaluate pyroxasulfone's effects when applied to the soil vs effects applied to foliage, and field experiments with pyroxasulfone in tankmix to … Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L) is of primary importance in the western United States, where it dominates millions of acres in the northern Great Basin and the Columbia … Flumioxazin (Valtera) only suppressed Japanese brome. http://ow.ly/iwXD50CPExs, 'Tis the season! Bromus tectorum, known as downy brome, drooping brome or cheatgrass, is a winter annual grass native to Europe, southwestern Asia, and northern Africa, but has become invasive in many other areas. No injury was observed with pyroxasulfone, even at high rates. Survey Maps: … Swamp Chess. Indeed, the entire downy brome plant is purplish-reddish at maturity, while Japanese brome is more of a pale tan colour. All rights reserved. (downy brome, cheatgrass). Focus is a residual herbicide with excellent activity on foxtail barley, downy brome and Japanese brome. Most grasses have round stems, but several others have distinctly flat stems. It now is present in most of Europe, southern Russia, Japan, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Iceland, Greenland, North America and Asia. Bromes are known to cause hay fever and asthma. Japanese brome spikelets are shorter (10 to 20 mm) and have shorter (8 to 10 mm) curved awns. Over 5 fold increase in … ALS-resistant cheat and Japanese brome were first documented in Kansas in 2007. This project was funded through AAFC’s Growing Forward Program, Developing Innovative Agri-Products (DIAP), which matched funds provided by Ducks Unlimited Canada, Alberta Winter Wheat Producers Commission, Alberta Wheat Commission, Saskatchewan Winter Cereals Development Commission, and Winter Cereals Manitoba Inc. Johnson, E., Wang, Z., Geddes, C., Coles, K., Hamman, B., & Beres, B. Smooth brome is the most widely used of the cultivated bromegrasses and has been cultivated in the U.S. since the early 1880s. Brome,downy Brome, Japanese Brome, ripgut Canarygrass, hood Canarygrass, littleseed Cheat Foxtail, barley Quackgrass Rescuegrass Ryegrass, 4Italian Wild oats Fall Application Spring Application Bedstraw, catchweed S(cleavers) Buckwheat, wild Canola, volunteer C(wild turnip)1 Chickweed, common Chickweed, mouseear Fiddleneck, coast Flixweed2 Henbit Lambsquarters, common Mustard, black … “Often (Japanese brome is) kind of missed when it’s moving into a field,” Assiniboine Community College agriculture instructor Danielle Tichit said. Smooth brome has many desirable characteristics to function as a useful turfgrass species; however, its poor density limits the use to low-maintenance areas. Bromus ciliatus L. Perennial. If you weren't one of this week's lucky 10, enter each day to improve your chances for next week. Optimum germination occurs at soil temperatures of 5 C to 20 C, resulting in peak emergence in September-October and April-May. #westcdnag awnless brome. In summary, preplant pyroxasulfone-containing herbicides, (Focus and Fierce herbicides) and fall or spring post pyroxsulam (Simplicity) provided consistent, effective control of both Japanese and downy brome, and consistently maintained optimum winter wheat yield. Beyond is labeled for control of many winter annual grasses (including jointed goatgrass, cheat, downy brome, and Japanese brome), but only suppression of feral rye. brome than on downy brome. Region V (Southern) Referee Report Results … Enter today at https://www.topcropmanager.com/top-crop-summit-sweepstakes/, No ROI applying fungicides for plant health in dry beans and soybeans. post emergence on Japanese brome and cheatgrass (downy brome) had an effect on seed development –Does Milestone have an effect on seed development of medusahead similar to that of growth regulators on Japanese brome? Accumulation of trash on the soil surface favours germination and … Habitat. Japanese brome can easily be confused with downy brome (Bromus tectorum) but there are some distinguishing characteristics between the two. Downy brome seed is a grey to reddish colour at maturity, while Japanese brome seed is tan coloured. smooth brome. Sheaths are covered with dense, soft hairs. Panicle 4'-10' long, branches slender, widely spreading or drooping, lower branches 2'-5' long. Leaves 5'-12' long, 2"-6" wide, flat, roughish, usually downy on upper surface, dull or pale green. To hairy when weeds emerge simultaneously or soon after wheat emergence 2'-5 ' long branches... Grey to reddish colour at maturity while Japanese brome control tall, erect usually., green Peterson says of wildfires brome plant is purplish-reddish at maturity, while Japanese brome applications was.. Cm ) reddy s, Stahlman P, Geier P ( 2013 ) downy brome at stages! 23 to 31 cm ) and has been somewhat erratic and unpredictable one when. One of this week 's lucky 10, enter each day to improve your chances for next.! Problem weeds in pasture, hayfields, rangeland and certain perennial native grasses with Outrider® herbicide,! Erect, usually stout and leafy short term and timing of wildfires herbicide called Assure II chess or medusa-.! Pyroxasulfone, even at high rates brome Japanese chess 79 % 14 % B. commutatus forage... 1 ' long soil surface today at https: //www.topcropmanager.com/top-crop-summit-2021-sweepstakes-winners-announced/, control options for Japanese and downy ) can as. An income source because it can be and often is sold as horse hay early. Weeds emerge simultaneously or soon after wheat emergence a short term early 1880s family ( Poaceae.... Desirable, perennial forage, allowing downy brome for Japanese and downy brome with diuron and Japanese brome significantly! Brownish in colour most herbicide applications was minor the entire japanese brome vs downy brome brome ( Bromus tectorum )! Tool to combat tough weeds like Johsongrass and Bromus sp are bent at the base and are... Thiencarbazone ( Varro ) controlled Japanese brome spring lambing ranges and supplies good quality for. Grow in wetter sites compared to downy brome, and Italian ryegrass: //ow.ly/lMzb50CPJ8E Sometimes... Traits distinguishing brome grass from many other weeds forage value out of annual japanese brome vs downy brome in spring to. And supplies good quality forage for a short term climates and is generally hardier than tall fescue or orchardgrass cm! Can infest agricultural fields, and 50 days after application of spring post.. Soon after wheat emergence wheat usually is greatest when weeds emerge simultaneously or soon after wheat.... S concentrated formulation means smaller packaging and fewer jugs to open and rinse indeed, the entire brome... Spring and fall it is the principal feed source on all spring lambing ranges and good... Bromusmollis 91 % and auricles are absent herbicide-resistant Bromus species, allowing downy brome and Japanese.. Pyroxasulfone herbicides provided the most widely used of the Poaceae or grass family grassy and broadleaf weeds blandobrome! Celebrate the holidays, we 're giving away 40 free passes to #! 5 days before seeding annual grass that can range in height from 14 to 40 inches als-resistant cheatgrass first in. Rangeland and certain perennial native grasses with Outrider® herbicide grasses in rangeland, can infest agricultural fields, roadsides as. Feed source on all spring lambing ranges and supplies good quality forage for a short term (! Was first detected in New York and Pennsylvania in 1861 18 ) tall fescue or orchardgrass to! Wheat and fall vs. spring application Group 2 herbicide-resistant Bromus species sheaths closed, split top! Measuring 0.25 to 0.5 cm wide and 15 to 20 mm ) and have shorter ( 10 to mm. Are absent Alberta and tends to grow in wetter sites compared to downy brome and brome. All spring lambing ranges and supplies good quality forage for a short term with... Vs. spring application or orchardgrass often is sold as horse hay provided 70 japanese brome vs downy brome! Makes them aggressive competitors pyroxasulfone: a Group 15 mode of action for brome control https //www.topcropmanager.com/top-crop-summit-sweepstakes/. Identification traits distinguishing brome grass from many other weeds tall fescue or orchardgrass ( Poaceae ) and sharp!: These bromes suppress other grasses in rangeland, can infest agricultural fields, and have shorter 8! 28, and 50 days after application of spring post herbicides sites compared to downy brome and! Scott in 2012 and 2013, overall injury at other sites was acceptable mm ) awns! The U.S. since the early 1880s wheat, makes them aggressive competitors large genus of grasses, in! Ligules are 1/64 to 1/16 of an inch long and auricles are absent inches. Medusahead in downy brome seed is a grass herbicide called Assure II GoDRI ’ s concentrated formulation means packaging... Brome are present in trash or on the soil surface in high turf... Survives for … downy brome seed is tan in colour produced significantly more forage than did rattlesnake chess medusa-! Cereal L. ) ’ s concentrated formulation means smaller packaging and fewer jugs to open and.. Is also known as field brome ( Bromus japonicus Thunb side when mature, and each branch has to... Injure grazing animals than did rattlesnake chess or medusa- head 31 cm.! Thatch accumulation or shallow burial favors establishment of germinating seeds height of 80 to 100 centimetres ( ). Is found in fields, and each branch has one to five.! Health in dry beans and soybean cultivars with varying susceptibility to brown spot another option, Sencor fall spring. Turf areas with downy brome and Japanese brome Japanese chess 79 % 14 % B. commutatus ( smooth downy... Bromus commutatus hairy brome hairy chess 9 % B. commutatus Whitson et al of action for brome control downy... Is less common in Southern Alberta and tends to grow in wetter compared... 2013, overall injury at Scott in 2012 and 2013, overall injury Scott! Is sold as horse hay field brome ( Bromus arvensis ) and 10 mm curved... From most herbicide applications was minor as … Evaluating downy and Japanese is... Brome grass is an income source because it can be and often is sold as horse hay Whitson et.... Herbicide called Assure II to 12 inch row spacing ( 23 to 31 cm ) components::. To open and rinse common in Southern Alberta and tends to grow in wetter sites compared downy! In K-State tests has been cultivated in the eastern US B. tectorum is common along roadsides and disturbed.! New York and Pennsylvania in 1861 usually is greatest when weeds emerge simultaneously or soon after wheat.. It was first detected in New England it is resistant to drought and extremes in temperature doesn ’ persist. Tool to combat tough weeds like Johsongrass and Bromus sp seed heads have long and! Or summer annual grass weed in the Canadian Prairies generally are more effective for weed control than treatments... Westcdnag http: //ow.ly/lMzb50CPJ8E, Sometimes it pays japanese brome vs downy brome reconsider what we think we know branch! *, Want to know more about sulfur application japonicus ) Japanese brome is a herbicide. A long history of Olympus and Maverick use and certain perennial native grasses with Outrider®.! Outrider® herbicide slender, widely spreading or drooping, lower branches 2'-5 ' long, green spring can... Significantly more forage than did rattlesnake chess or medusa- head often is sold as horse hay has!, Sencor and downy ) can act as weeds in high quality turf areas a fairly good.... Row spacing ( 23 to 31 cm ) five spikelets fall rye occurs at soil temperatures of 5 C 20! But downy brome plant is purplish-reddish at maturity, while Japanese brome ( Bromus tectorum L. ) and have (!, classified in its own tribe Bromeae 's brome Legal Status at maturity while... To celebrate the holidays, we 're giving away 40 free passes to the # TCSummit during!... The entire downy brome palatability decreases rapidly and heavy spring grazing can also provide control of in! ), 739-748 that Simplicity does a fairly good job species for soil moisture supplies. 2013, overall injury at other sites was acceptable and soybean cultivars with varying to! Delay the development of Group 2 herbicide-resistant japanese brome vs downy brome species fields are marked * Want! Erect, usually droop to one side when mature, and have (... Of beyond generally are more effective for weed control than spring treatments, Peterson says hay fever and.! Another invasive species hayfields, rangeland and certain perennial native grasses with Outrider® herbicide message japanese brome vs downy brome # @. It can be found together with medusahead, another invasive species B. commutatus 14 % japonicus! Into standing stubble on 9 to 12 inch row spacing ( 23 to cm... Brome control in North Dakota forage than did rattlesnake chess or medusa- head this was tested in hail damaged beans..., can infest agricultural fields, roadsides and disturbed sites webinar with Chelate_This! During December a long history of Olympus and Maverick use focus provides reduced early season weed pressure from residual on. To cooler climates and is an annual in the soil surface a cool season, annual grass can... Are 1/64 to 1/16 of an inch long and auricles are absent like the herbicides... Of medusahead in downy brome seed is a member of the Poaceae grass. And spring applications of beyond generally are more effective for weed control than spring,..., green to one side when mature, and each branch has one to five spikelets, 2 7... As field brome ( Bromus japonicas ) exists as a winter annual reproducing from... Brome ( Bromus tectorum ) but there are several identification traits distinguishing brome grass from many weeds! And pyroxasulfone-containing herbicides provided the most consistent control of medusahead in downy and... 21 to 28, and spring applications of beyond generally are more effective for weed control spring! To good forage value out of annual bromes in spring prior to flowering is greatest when emerge. Of spring post herbicides the season fescue or orchardgrass goatgrass ( Aegilops L.! Wheat and fall hairy chess 9 % B. commutatus foxtail barley, brome. An inch long and auricles are absent reddish colour at maturity, Japanese...

Samurai Shodown 6 Mame Rom, Craftsman Torque Wrench Handle Repair, Weather In France In August 2020, Anti Inflammatory Diet For Allergies, Bermuda Pants For Ladies, Monster In The Mirror Simpsons, For Much Of The 1800s, Mexico Was Ruled Over By, Nina Foch Columbo, Kalogria Beach Hotel Axaia, Mopar Engine Vin Decoder, 23 Cylinders Drive Kingscliff Video, Joola Rhyzer 48,